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        HRM Essay范文格式:Unilateral Decision Making in Human Resources

        论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-10-28 15:18:31 来源:www.hsltc.com 作者:留学作业网

        HRM Essay范文格式-人力资源单边决策。本文是一篇留学生HRM Essay写作范文,主要内容是介绍“人力资源管理是一系列活动,首先使工作人员和使用其技能的组织就其工作关系的目标和性质达成一致,其次,确保协议得到履行。关于谁是该组织的决策者一直存在争议。是管理层负责制定和实施战略,还是员工是组织的生命线,了解产品。谁最有能力做出决定?本essay讨论了各种观点和决策方式。三种视角的简要介绍,下面就一起来看一下这篇留学生HRM Essay范文的具体内容。

        HRM Essay范文格式‘Human resource management is a series of activities which first enable working people and the organisation which uses their skills to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and secondly, ensure that the agreement is fulfilled’ . There has been an argument about who are the decision makers in the organisation. Is it the Management who are responsible for strategy forming and implementing the strategy or is it the employees who are the life line of the organisation who have the knowledge about the product. Who are best capable of making the decisions? In the essay there is the discussion about the various perspectives and the way decisions are taken. A brief introduction of three types of perspective:
        Unitary Perspective: A Unitary perspective has one source of authority and one focus of loyalty, which is why it suggests team analogy. Each accepts his place and his functions gladly, following the leadership of the one so appointed. Fox (1966) ( pg 2).
        Pluralistic Perspective: A Pluralist frame of reference recognises that the legitimacy and justification of trade union in our society rests not upon their protective function in labour markets or upon their success, real or supposed, in raising the share enjoyed by their members, but on social values which recognise the right of interest-group to combine and have an effective voice in their own destiny. This means having a voice in decision making.
        统一观点:统一观点有一个权威来源和一个忠诚焦点,这就是为什么它建议团队类比。每个人都很高兴地接受自己的职位和职能,在这样任命的人的领导下。             
        多元化视角:多元化的参考框架承认,工会在我们社会中的合法性和正当性并不取决于其在劳动力市场中的保护作用,也不取决于其是否在提高其成员所享有的份额方面取得了实实在在的成功,而是基于社会价值观,这些价值观承认利益集团有权结合并在自己的命运中拥有有效的发言权。这意味着在决策中有发言权。
        Marxist Perspective: the Marxist perspective sees the process and institution of joint regulation as an enhancement rather that reduction in management’s position; at best they provide only limited and temporary accommodation of the inherent and fundamental division within capitalist based work and social structure.
        马克思主义观点:马克思主义观点认为联合监管的过程和制度是管理层地位的提升,而不是降低;它们充其量只能为资本主义工作和社会结构中固有的和根本的分歧提供有限和暂时的适应。
        In the essay we would be concentrating more on unitary perspective and pluralistic perspective as they have closer relevance to the statement/argument. The essay gives the outline of how various perspectives effect the decision making process. The effects of various factors on factors like employee relations, employee contract, job regulations, and perspectives have been discussed representing them with a few examples.
        在这篇文章中,我们将更多地关注单一视角和多元视角,因为它们与陈述/论点有更密切的相关性。本文概述了各种观点如何影响决策过程。讨论了各种因素对员工关系、员工合同、工作规定和观点等因素的影响,并列举了一些例子。
        The corporation is the “master”, the employee is the “servant”. Because the corporation owns the means of production without which the employee could not make a living, the employee needs the corporation more than vice versa.
        公司是“主人”,员工是“仆人”。由于公司拥有员工无法谋生的生产资料,因此员工对公司的需求大于反之。
        Peter Drucker – Business – Capitalism – Work 彼得·德鲁克——商业——资本主义——工作
        Management regards its own unilateral decision-making over Human Resource issue as legitimate and rational; any opposition to it, either internal or external to the organisation, is seen as irrational.
        管理层认为自己对人力资源问题的单方面决策是合法和合理的;对它的任何反对,无论是在组织内部还是外部,都被视为不合理的。
        Managements unilateral decision making over Human Resource issue is legitimate and rational can be accepted only if the employer and employee feel that they are one big family (unitary perspective). As fox has summarised that the unitary perspective can be justified when employees and employers have a common goal and objective i.e., to maximise the success of the organisation and workers willingly accept to obey the decision taken by the management. Armstrong (1999) says that the philosophy of Human Resource Management with its emphasis on commitment and mutuality is based on the unitary perspective.fox also states that in unitary perspective ‘there are no teams. Nor are they any outside it; the team stands alone, the members (employees) have an obligation of loyalty to their leader’ Fox (1966) (p.03).
        只有当雇主和雇员认为他们是一个大家庭时(单一的观点),管理层对人力资源问题的单方面决策才是合法和合理的。正如福克斯总结的那样,当雇员和雇主有共同的目标和目标,即最大限度地实现组织的成功,并且工人愿意接受服从管理层的决定时,单一观点是合理的。Armstrong表示,人力资源管理的哲学强调承诺和相互关系,其基础是统一的观点。福克斯还表示,从单一的角度来看,没有团队。外面也没有;如果团队孤立无援,成员(员工)有义务忠于他们的领导。
        Therefore from the above references it is clear that the decision taken by the management is legitimate and rational and it’s the duty of the employees to follow it without opposing it. The employers are responsible for the effective running of the organisation and they would have a long term plans of the organisation and the decisions would be taken according to the company vision and objectives. The employees need to understand that the employers would always think to better the company and maximize the profits, opposing decisions taken by them would not only be disloyalty shown towards the organisation but also unethical practise to go against the people who have provided them with food and shelter which are the basic needs (Maslow’s hierarchy). The above statement is very strong in countries like India where the trade unions have more political view than the welfare of the members of the trade unions. The trade unions go on strikes just to overpower the management. States like West Bengal where the trade unions have the upper hand to the management. That is the main reason why no multinational company wants to set up their base in west Bengal. Whereas states like Karnataka where the unions are discouraged have come up because the IT industry does not encourage trade unions. ‘It may not affect the Industry, but there would be change in the perception and image of the industry if trade unions are introduced. We must seriously consider whether it is the right time to have trade unions in the IT sector. It might hurt the industry’ Kris Gopalakrishnan, CEO & MD, Infosys Technologies (Forbes rated Infosys among the 5 best performing companies in the software and services sector in the world). The success of the organisation has been unitarist approach. Unitary perspective also overcomes the problems of disputes between rivalry unions. In this method the accountability becomes clear because everyone is assigned a responsibility.
        因此,从上述参考资料中可以清楚地看出,管理层做出的决定是合法和合理的,员工有义务遵守该决定而不反对该决定。雇主负责组织的有效运行,他们将制定组织的长期计划,并根据公司愿景和目标做出决定。员工需要明白,雇主总是会想让公司更好,利润最大化,反对他们做出的决定不仅是对组织的不忠,而且是不道德的做法,违背了为他们提供食物和住所的人的基本需求(马斯洛的等级制度)。在像印度这样的国家,上述声明非常有力,因为工会的政治观点比工会成员的福利更为重要。工会罢工只是为了压倒管理层。像西孟加拉邦这样的州,工会对管理层占上风。这就是为什么没有一家跨国公司想在西孟加拉邦建立基地的主要原因。而像卡纳塔克邦这样不鼓励工会的州却出现了,因为IT行业不鼓励工会这可能不会影响行业,但如果引入工会,行业的观念和形象将发生变化。我们必须认真考虑,现在是否是在信息技术行业成立工会的适当时机。Infosys Technologies首席执行官兼首席执行官Kris Gopalakrishnan(《福布斯》将Infosys评为全球软件和服务行业表现最好的五家公司之一)可能会受到损害。该组织的成功是一种统一的做法。统一的观点也克服了竞争性工会之间的纠纷问题。在这种方法中,责任变得清晰,因为每个人都被分配了责任。
        Unitary perspective approach towards job regulation is unilateral in internal regulations. A unitary approach manager takes all the decisions without the consultation of the employees as the employer would know best for the employees. If the decision would be put forward to the employees there would be conflicts of interest. For example during the recent recession period, when the companies had to lay off employees it would not be advisable for the organisation to consult its union about whom and how many are to be removed. The union which is formed for the welfare of the employees would not agree to such decisions and hence it would result in strikes (Jet Airways employees calling for a strike because 150 of its employees were given the pink slip. The organisation was going through huge losses and the only way it would reduce its loss would be by reducing its man power which was not accepted by the Union, hence it resulted in strike). Therefore it is necessary for an organisation to limits the powers of trade unions in decision making. When the Theory X and Theory Y- Mc Gregor’s is taken into consideration it proves that employees of Theory X would oppose any decision taken by the management as the employees under theory X dislike work and do not care about the organisation goals. Thereby it becomes necessary for the management to take the decisions and employees opposing it are seen as irrational. But the organisation does not have any control over the external Job Regulations because external job regulation consists of forces which are partially outside the enterprise. Therefore, the organisation does not have complete control over the external job regulation.
        在内部法规中,对工作监管采取统一观点的做法是单方面的。一个单一的方法经理在不征求员工意见的情况下做出所有决定,因为雇主最了解员工。如果将该决定提交给员工,就会产生利益冲突。例如,在最近的经济衰退时期,当公司不得不解雇员工时,该组织最好咨询其工会,了解哪些人和多少人将被解雇。为雇员福利而成立的工会不会同意这些决定,因此会导致罢工(Jet Airways的员工要求罢工,因为有150名员工被解雇。该组织正遭受巨大损失,唯一能减少损失的方法是减少人力,而工会不接受这一点,因此导致了罢工)。因此,组织有必要限制工会在决策中的权力。当考虑到X理论和Y理论-麦克格雷戈的理论时,它证明X理论的员工会反对管理层做出的任何决定,因为X理论下的员工不喜欢工作,不关心组织目标。因此,管理层有必要做出决定,而反对的员工则被视为不合理。但该组织对外部工作条例没有任何控制权,因为外部工作条例由部分在企业外部的力量组成。因此,该组织无法完全控制外部工作规定。
        In context with the labour contract, the unitary perspective manager recruits the employees for a particular assignment and when an employee enters into a contract with the employer it’s his/her duty/responsibility to follow instructions given by the employer, as the statement refers anyone opposing it is seen as irrational would be true because when an employee goes against the contract it is irrational or not fulfilling the terms of the contract. The method of negotiations and bargaining is not encouraged in unitary perspective because the organisations face the problem of firstly recognizing the right union (multiple numbers of unions in an organisation has increased). Therefore the only way to solve this problem would be non recognition of unions. If the management needs to make unilateral decisions which has to be accepted by the employees’ the decision makers need to have a few traits in them. Firstly they should have a problem solving ability and how they can fit into the wider scheme. Secondly they should have a strong desire to achieve the goals, they should be self confident and self disciplined, they should have the ability to listen and communicate effectively. Finally they should be analytical and intelligent (not to intelligent). Robert.H. & David Wilson. Managing organisations. (Pg198)
        在劳动合同方面,单一视角的经理为特定任务雇用雇员,当雇员与雇主签订合同时,他/她有义务/责任遵守雇主的指示,正如该声明所指,任何反对它的人都被认为是不合理的,这是正确的,因为当一名员工违反合同时,这是不合理或没有履行合同条款。从单一的角度来看,谈判和谈判的方法不受鼓励,因为组织面临首先承认正确工会的问题(一个组织中的工会数量增加了)。因此,解决这个问题的唯一办法是不承认工会。如果管理层需要做出单方面的决定,而这些决定必须得到员工的接受,那么决策者需要具备一些特质。首先,他们应该有解决问题的能力,以及如何适应更广泛的计划。其次,他们应该有实现目标的强烈愿望,他们应该自信和自律,他们应该具有倾听和有效沟通的能力。最后,他们应该具有分析能力和智慧(而不是智慧)。罗伯特·H·大卫·威尔逊。管理组织。
        When Unitarism is related to the labour process it becomes clear that the management has the whole authority to make all the decisions because in it is perceived that all the raw materials, means of production and the product of labour belongs to the management. Therefore the decisions taken by the management are legitimate and rational as they own everything and anyone opposing would be considered as irrational. The statement holds true in this situation because once a person/organisation is the owner of a particular thing, he/they should have the freedom to do what he/they want to do with it, without anyone’s interference. When there is a problem with the organisation it is the management that is held responsible for it. For example even if an employee has faulted in his work and the customer may have some problem with it is the organisation that has to pay the compensation to the customers not the employee.
        当一元论与劳动过程相关时,很明显,管理层拥有做出所有决定的全部权力,因为人们认为,所有原材料、生产资料和劳动产品都属于管理层。因此,管理层做出的决定是合法和合理的,因为他们拥有一切,任何反对的人都会被视为不合理的。这种说法在这种情况下是正确的,因为一旦一个人/组织是某件特定事物的所有者,他/他们就应该有自由去做他/他们想做的事情,而不受任何人的干涉。当组织出现问题时,由管理层负责。例如,即使一名员工在工作中犯了错误,而客户可能对此产生了一些问题,但必须向客户而非员工支付赔偿金的是组织。       
        The statement is only applicable for a unitary approach organisation but it has its own draw backs which are low employee morale, low productivity and absenteeism, negative attitude towards work/ job, management rivalry, disagreement, incompatibility, incongruence. There may be various reasons for the following. But to avoid the following there has to be a two way communication between the employee and the employer. The above theory can be accepted but to a certain extent as the external factors cannot be controlled by the organisation. Factors like supply, demand, government policies all play a major role in the working of an organisation. Therefore external factors cannot be considered as irrational. The organisation needs to be flexible and change accordingly to the change in external factors. According to Dunlop (1950) industrial relations system consists of three agents – management organizations, workers and formal/informal ways they are organized and government agencies. The Dunlop’s model gives great significance to external or environmental forces. In other words, management, labor, and the government possess a shared ideology that defines their roles within the relationship and provides stability to the system. The Dunlop’s theory projects that all the actors have to a common understanding; they cannot work without each other’s support. The effect of a decision taken will have an effect on the other actors; therefore considering there interference is irrational will not help in the smooth running of the organisation. This is the reason why trade unions were formed which represents the employees. Trade unions have been recognised by all the governments. In a free market unions are encouraged as it is a symbol of democracy which allows the employees the right of expression. In the modern day business there are new techniques like Delphi method; Quality Circles are introduced for the betterment of the organisation. This shows employee participation in the decision making process of the management has become very important; therefore the management considering any opposition from the employees as irrational will be wrong.
        该声明仅适用于单一方法的组织,但它也有自己的缺点,即员工士气低落、生产力低下和旷工、对工作/工作的消极态度、管理层竞争、分歧、不兼容和不协调。以下可能有各种原因。但为了避免以下情况,雇员和雇主之间必须进行双向沟通。上述理论可以接受,但在一定程度上,因为外部因素无法由组织控制。供应、需求、政府政策等因素都在组织的工作中发挥着重要作用。因此,外部因素不能被认为是不合理的。组织需要灵活,并根据外部因素的变化进行相应的改变。根据Dunlop的说法,劳资关系体系由三个主体组成——管理组织、工人和正式/非正式组织方式以及政府机构。邓洛普的模型对外部或环境力量具有重要意义。换言之,管理层、劳工和政府拥有共同的意识形态,定义了他们在关系中的角色,并为系统提供了稳定性。邓洛普的理论表明,所有参与者都有共同的理解;没有彼此的支持,他们无法工作。所作决定的影响将对其他行为者产生影响;因此,认为干预是不合理的,无助于组织的顺利运行。这就是为什么成立了代表雇员的工会。工会得到了所有政府的认可。在自由市场中,工会受到鼓励,因为它是民主的象征,允许雇员享有言论权。在现代商业中有新的技术,如德尔菲法;引入质量圈是为了改善组织。这表明员工参与管理决策过程变得非常重要;因此,管理层认为员工的任何反对都是不合理的,这是错误的。
        A unitary approach becomes really hard when the company is a Multi National Company, because the business market would be different in different countries therefore having a unilateral approach may not suite the organisation. To gain a competitive edge the organisation needs to make the best use of its resources and there are more chances of mis communications in unitary approach, which may result into conflicts.
        A pluralistic perspective completely agrees with the above said statement as a pluralistic manager believes conflicts are inevitable. It is something that cannot be avoided. The only way the conflicts can be solved is by collective bargaining. In a collective bargaining, it’s a Win-Win situation for both the employers and the employees. It keeps the morale high and even the productivity high. Therefore considering any interference of the employees of the organisation as irrational cannot be justified, it’s the right of the employee to have a say in the decision taken by the employer as it will be the employees who would be following those decisions. Ex. If an employer decides to extend the shift (working hours) it has to be consulted with the employees as it will be them who would be working for long hours. If the decision is taken without consultation it would result in conflicts. Every organisation has a member representation of the employees because the organisations have understood the importance of employee satisfaction. Therefore the above statement cannot be agreed on if the organisation follows pluralistic approach. Workers in various countries have been opposing the unilateral decision making process. They feel the managers have been mis using their powers. Even though the management owns the organisation it can only buy the labour power it cannot buy labour because labour is not saleable, therefore the management can restrict its decisions to labour power not labour. Therefore any decision taken which affects the labour can be opposed and it would be considered as rational.
        当公司是一家跨国公司时,单一方法变得非常困难,因为不同国家的商业市场会不同,因此采用单边方法可能不适合组织。为了获得竞争优势,组织需要最大限度地利用其资源,并且在单一方法中存在更多的错误沟通机会,这可能导致冲突。             
        多元化的观点完全符合上述说法,因为多元化的管理者认为冲突是不可避免的。这是无法避免的。解决冲突的唯一途径是集体谈判。在集体谈判中,雇主和雇员都是双赢的。它能保持高昂的士气,甚至生产力。因此,考虑到组织员工的任何干预都是不合理的,员工有权对雇主做出的决定有发言权,因为员工将遵循这些决定。例如:如果雇主决定延长轮班时间(工作时间),则必须与员工协商,因为他们会长时间工作。如果未经协商就作出决定,将导致冲突。每个组织都有员工的成员代表,因为这些组织已经了解员工满意度的重要性。因此,如果该组织采用多元化方法,上述声明就无法达成一致。各国的工人一直反对单边决策过程。他们觉得经理们滥用了他们的权力。尽管管理层拥有组织,但它只能购买劳动力,因为劳动力不可出售,所以不能购买劳动力,因此管理层可以将其决策限制在劳动力而非劳动力。因此,任何影响劳工的决定都可以被反对,并被认为是合理的。
        When pluralism is related to job regulation as stated by Bean (2000) (p.370) ‘it is generally conceded in the liberal democratic world that working people should have the right to participate in the making of decisions that critically affect their working lives’. From the above quote it shows the importance of employee involvement in the decision making process. The employers need to understand that employees play a major role in functioning of the organisation, by involving them into the decision making process not only increases the motivation of the employees but also increase the productivity of the employees. In the modern techniques there are various methods adopted like to increase employee participation in the organisation. It may sometimes result in new fresh ideas which may work in favour of the organisation. Therefore considering ideas from the employees while making decision can be very useful. Sometimes these ideas may contradict the decisions of the management, the management needs to analyse the suggestion and implement it if it is for the betterment of the organisation. The management cannot consider these ideas as irrational.
        正如Bean所述,当多元化与工作监管相关时,“在自由民主世界,人们普遍承认,劳动人民应有权参与对其工作生活产生重大影响的决策”。从上面的引文中可以看出员工参与决策过程的重要性。雇主需要了解,员工在组织运作中扮演着重要角色,让他们参与决策过程不仅能提高员工的积极性,还能提高员工的生产力。在现代技术中,采用了各种方法,如提高员工对组织的参与度。它有时可能会产生新的想法,这些想法可能对组织有利。因此,在做出决策时考虑员工的想法非常有用。有时,这些想法可能与管理层的决定相矛盾,如果是为了改善组织,管理层需要分析建议并加以实施。管理层不能认为这些想法是不合理的。
        While making rules for the organisations various factors influence them, factors like State, the availability of labour. Supply and demand etc. play a crucial role and none of them can be considered as irrational when they oppose the decisions made by the organisation.
        The draw backs with pluralistic approach would be rivalry between the trade unions, it makes it hard for the organisation to negotiate when there are more than one trade unions’ and hence the unions and the management would loose valuable time and money in negotiating the problems. It is the duty of the unions to act as a mediator between the employees and management, but the unions have become so political that they just see how the party(the political) party they represent is benefitted. Example. TATA Nano project was shifted from Singhur (West Bengal, India) to Gujarat (India) because the opposition party wanted to put the ruling government down. There was loss of employment for the state (west Bengal) when the company made the decision to move out, and the union did not achieve any gain out of it. Therefore it can be concluded that the unions no longer work for the welfare of the employees, they have diverted themselves to work for the political party that is supporting them.
        在为组织制定规则时,各种因素会影响它们,如国家、劳动力的可用性。供应和需求等起着至关重要的作用,当他们反对组织做出的决定时,他们中的任何人都不能被认为是不合理的。             
        多元化方法的缩水将是工会之间的竞争,当存在多个工会时,组织很难进行谈判,因此工会和管理层在谈判问题时会浪费宝贵的时间和金钱。工会有责任在雇员和管理层之间充当调解人,但工会已经变得如此政治化,以至于他们只看到他们所代表的政党(政治)如何受益。实例TATA Nano项目从印度西孟加拉邦的Singhur转移到印度古吉拉特邦,因为反对党想推翻执政政府。当公司决定迁出时,该州(西孟加拉邦)失去了就业机会,工会也没有从中获得任何收益。因此,可以得出结论,工会不再为雇员的福利工作,而是转而为支持他们的政党工作。
        The Marxist approach states that the management makes profit by exploiting the labourers, i.e. by paying them low wage compared to the work they have done.
        马克思主义的观点认为,管理层通过剥削工人来获取利润,也就是说,与他们所做的工作相比,付给他们较低的工资。
        Conclusion 结论
        From the above arguments and analysis it becomes clear that the argument is an Management regards its own unilateral decision-making over Human Resource issue as legitimate and rational; any opposition to it, either internal or external to the organisation, is applicable only in Unitary Perspective but this can be implemented in very Public/Private sectors. Some organisations have been successful after adopting such approach but this method cannot be adopted in all sectors as in this fast growing business world and the rate of attrition increasing it becomes very essential for an organisation to take care of its employees and other concerns which are attached to the company, considering their opposition as irrational can be very easily be a reason for the downfall of the organisation. An organisation may enjoy supreme authority when they have a unitary approach but the organisation to decide its transfers and promotions very carefully. It would play a major role because if a manager is recruited from outside the organisation may not be able to adapt to the organisations culture and there would be regular oppositions for his decisions.
        从上述论点和分析可以清楚地看出,论点是:管理层认为自己对人力资源问题的单方面决策是合法和合理的;组织内部或外部的任何反对意见都只适用于统一观点,但这可以在非常公共/私营部门实施。一些组织在采用这种方法后取得了成功,但这种方法不可能在所有部门都采用,因为在这个快速增长的商业世界中,随着人员流失率的增加,组织必须照顾员工和其他与公司相关的问题,认为他们的反对是非理性的,很容易成为该组织垮台的原因。当一个组织采用统一的方法时,该组织可能享有最高权力,但该组织必须非常谨慎地决定其调动和晋升。这将发挥重要作用,因为如果从组织外部招聘经理,可能无法适应组织文化,而且他的决定会经常遭到反对。
        From the above essay we can argue that no one type of perspective is suitable for all organisations. Some companies may adopted a particular perspective and been successful but it does not confirm that all companies will be successful by following such a perspective. An organisation may have both Theory X category employees’ and even Theory Y category employees, it is the responsibility of the managers to use the resources available and make the best use of them.
        从上面的文章中,我们可以论证,没有一种观点适合所有组织。一些公司可能采用了特定的观点并取得了成功,但这并不意味着所有公司都会通过遵循这种观点而获得成功。一个组织可能既有X理论类员工,也有Y理论类员工。管理者有责任使用可用资源,并充分利用这些资源。
        To conclude from the above essay it can be concluded that an organisation needs to be flexible but also needs to have authority over its employees. The management needs to take suggestion from its employees but the final decision needs to be taken by the management and it’s the duty of the employees to follow the decisions as they are under contract/agreement with the employer to render there services to the organisation. The management can have complete control over its internal part of the organisation and anyone opposing it would be going against the contract therefore can be considered as irrational but this can be said the same towards the external forces, the management does not have complete control over them, and considering their opposition as irrational would not be appropriate. Both the perspectives have their own advantages and disadvantages, it’s the responsibility of the management to balance their business and make profits after all- ‘The only and only social responsibility of a business is to make profits’- Milton Friedman (Noble Prize in economics).
        从上面的Essay范文可以得出结论,一个组织需要灵活,但也需要对其员工拥有权威。管理层需要听取员工的建议,但最终决定需要由管理层做出,员工有义务遵守决定,因为他们与雇主签订了合同/协议,为组织提供服务。管理层可以完全控制组织的内部,任何反对它的人都会违反合同,因此可以被认为是不合理的,但对于外部力量也是如此,管理层无法完全控制他们,认为他们的反对是不合理是不适当的。这两种观点都有各自的优点和缺点,管理层的责任是平衡他们的业务并获得利润——“企业唯一的社会责任就是获得利润”——米尔顿·弗里德曼。本站提供各国各专业Essay写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。

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