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        英文管理学essay格式要求—Challenges of Applying Ethical Theories to Practical Workplace Dilemmas

        论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-09-27 10:38:50 来源:www.hsltc.com 作者:留学作业网

        管理学essay范文——将伦理理论应用于实际职场困境的挑战。本文是一篇留学生管理专业的Essay写作格式参考范文,关于伦理的理论对那些必须解决工作场所中产生的实际伦理困境的管理者提供的指导很少。伦理学或道德哲学是一个分支,涉及系统化,捍卫和建议的概念的正确或错误的行为。伦理学寻求通过捍卫诸如好或坏、对或错、正义或犯罪等概念来解决人类道德问题......以下是管理学essay范例写作的全部内容,是一篇符合国外大学Essay写作格式要求的范文,供参考。

        管理学参考范文

        Theories about Ethics provide very little guidance to managers who must resolve practical ethical dilemmas arising in their workplace.

        Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right or wrong conduct. Ethics seek to resolve questions of human morality by defending concepts such as good or bad, right or wrong, justice or crime.

        What is an Ethical Dilemma?什么是道德困境?

        There are three conditions that should be present for a state to be considered as an ethical dilemma. The first condition occurs in situations when an individual called an agent must decide about what is the best course of actiont. The second condition is that there must be options of situations to choose from. The third condition is no matter what course of action is taken some ethical principle will be compromised, in other words,no perfect solution is available. (social worker, 2018, p. 1)

        一个国家要被视为道德困境,必须具备三个条件。第一种情况发生在被称为代理的个体必须决定什么是最佳行动方案的情况下。第二个条件是必须有多种情况可供选择。第三个条件是,无论采取什么行动,一定的道德原则都会受到损害,换句话说,没有完美的解决方案。(《社会工作者》,2018,第1页)

        Ethical Dilemma is a decision-making problem between two possible situations neither of which is actually accepted or can be preferable.

        Some of the theories/models of Ethics are as follows: –

        Egoism – Attitudes in business have often been deemed fundamentally egoistic. The egoist contends that all choices should involve self-promotion as their sole objective.

        Utilitarianism – Utilitarianism theories hold that the moral worth of actions is determined solely by their consequences. An action is right if it leads to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad consequences for all the parties affected.

        Kantian Ethics – in Kantian theories respect for the human being is said to be necessary not just as an option, because human beings possess a moral dignity and therefore should be treated with respect.

        Rights theories – unlike legal rights, human rights are held independently of membership in a state. Human rights evolved from the notion of natural rights. Many influential philosophers have maintained that Ethical theories of some parts of it must be rights-based.

        Virtue Ethics   – Virtue Ethics as it is called descends from the classical Hellenistic tradition in which the cultivation of virtuous traits of character is viewed as mortality’s primary function. (Beauchamp and Bowie, 2018, pp. 12,17,24,(31&32),33)

        Theories about Ethics are present everywhere. All the managers rather all the organizations have their own set of Ethics which must be followed by the managers as well as the rest of the employees. But very often it is seen that not all the theories can be applied in the real working environment.

        Ethical theories gives the manager basis of decision makinhg when ethics are in play because these theories represent lookouts by which managers take guidance when they are about to make certain decisions in an organization. Each theory has different set of points, decision making style or a decision rule.

        伦理理论给管理者提供了决策的基础,当伦理发挥作用时,因为这些理论代表了监督者,当管理者在组织中要做某些决定时,通过监督者进行指导。每种理论都有不同的点集、决策风格或决策规则。

        To understand Ethical decision making it is important to know that not everybody  makes a decision, in the similar way, using the similar information, employing the same decision rules. If managers wants to realize Ethical decisions properly then there must be some common knowledge or common set of areas that managers seek to achieve if they want to be successful.

        Managers face dilemmas in the workplace but are not aware of it.  To make Ethical decisions managers should consider whether conflicting interests exist in the situation. To do this manager should ask whether one decision harms one or more parties while benefitting others.

        Actual Ethical role of a Manager

        In a broad construction of the ethical role of the manager, managing and leading is said to be integrally ethics-laden tasks because every executive choice affects either people or the natural environment in some way and those effects or impacts should  be taken into account as decisions are made in an organization. A narrower perspective of the ethical role of the manager is that, managers should have sole objective of serving the interests of the shareholder; that is, their sole ethical task is to meet the believable obligation to maximize shareholder wealth that is embedded in the law. The ethical role of managers is much more beyond the actual acceptable responsibility when consideration is given to the multiple stakeholders who constitute the organization being managed and to nature, on which human civilization hinge on for its survival. Therefore, ethics and the actual role of the manager cannot be teased apart. (‘Business Ethics and society’, no date, p. 1)

        在管理者道德角色的广泛构建中,管理和领导被认为是整体上充满道德的任务,因为每一个管理者的选择都会以某种方式影响人或自然环境,这些影响或影响应该在组织中做出决策时加以考虑。从狭义的角度来看,经理的道德角色是,经理的唯一目标应该是为股东的利益服务;也就是说,他们唯一的道德任务是履行嵌入在法律中的股东财富最大化的可信义务。考虑到构成被管理组织的多个利益相关者,以及人类文明赖以生存的自然,管理者的伦理角色远远超出了实际可接受的责任。因此,伦理和管理者的实际作用不能分开。(《商业道德与社会》,没有日期,第1页)

        管理学Essay

        In the present study business managers were trained in the use of the autonomous method in their decision-making about solving real-life business ethics problems in a one-day educational programme which focused on the training of the autonomous cognitive ability and not on the transfer of moral content, was enough to provide a shift in the mode of decision-making about business ethics problems towards the autonomous ethical function. The conviction that a problem-solving ability is more reliable for the resolution of moral conflicts and problems is based on the knowledge that the same moral principles are not valid everywhere, on every occasion and for everyone. However, nearly all research done in this area, especially in business ethics education, is confined to the study of moral content (for instance Glenn, 1992) and almost neglects investigation of the different methods people use to solve moral problems. Ethical development is understood as the successive improvement of a person’s ability to solve moral problems which he/she encounters in his/her real life. (Kavathatzopoulos, 1994, p. 1)

        Ethics is a very delicate word, easy to say but difficult to practice. Every business has their own drafted Ethical policies which sorry to say mostly stay only in black and white. There was a time when Ethics carried a lot of weight in every walk of life but as the world grew competitive and as the firms grew result oriented the Ethical weightage started facing a downfall. 

        For example: –

        Top management of a technical organization has told their production manager to hire a new employee for the technical work by giving advertisements in newspapers and on the internet. After looking at one of the advertisements one person shows up for the interview and the manager accepts that the person has a very good experience in working in this field and is the proper person for the job and tells him to start the work from the following week,

        Followed by this at the lunchtime the manager of the accounting department of the same organization requests the production manager to appoint his nephew for this technical job. The nephew comes with as good as the working experience as the person he told to start working from the following week. Now here the Ethical dilemma arises, what does the manager is supposed to do? Having found out that both are equally good for the job, but whom should he hire? The person who is the nephew of his friend and the manager of accounts of the same company? Or a person who ethically has the first say?

        紧接着,午餐时间,这家公司会计部门的经理要求生产经理任命他的侄子担任这项技术工作。这个侄子的工作经验和他让他从下周开始工作的人一样好。现在道德困境出现了,经理应该怎么做?在发现两者都适合这份工作后,他应该雇佣谁呢?他朋友的侄子和同一家公司的会计经理?还是一个在道德上有第一发言权的人?

        In this given situation the manager should follow the Ethics and should appoint the person who he interviewed earlier because that person Ethically has the first say for the job, but on the other hand he can’t even ignore the request of his friend and the working manager of accounts of that same organization so somewhere he may be forced by himself to appoint the nephew of his friend working in the same organization.

        Ethical dilemmas can be solved in various ways by giving that the situation is only deceptive and does not actually occur. Solution to Ethical Dilemma involves choosing the greater good and lesser evil.

        The issues of ethical decision making in organizations have received much attention in recent years for a variety of reasons. Managers are not likely to allow their “Ethics” to be directly observed nor it will be acceptable to attempt to manipulate Ethical decision making in the field. A cited survey of Harvard Business review readers showed that one half from an organization reported that managers do not apply the Ethical standards, reasons provided were the preoccupation with gain, lack of reinforcement of ethical behavior, competition and a sense that only “results” are important to supervisors. (‘ethical decision making in organizations.pdf’, no date, p. 3)

        Therefore, in my view theories about Ethics certainly provide very minute guidance to managers who must resolve practical Ethical Dilemma arising in their workplace because at some point a manager might face a situation where a theory about Ethics may not work or even taking into consideration the Egoism Theory which contends that all the outcomes in the organization should have profits as their sole objectives we can say that the managers are keen only on the results or the profits and are not willing to work according to Ethical standards to achieve these results.

        因此,在我看来理论道德当然提供非常分钟指导管理者必须解决实际的伦理困境出现在他们的工作场所,因为在某种程度上经理可能会面临一个关于道德的理论可能不工作,甚至考虑的利己主义理论认为组织中的所有结果应该利润作为他们唯一的目标,我们只能说,经理们敏锐的结果或利润和不愿意根据道德标准工作以达到这些结果。

        Reference list 参考文献

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